Wage-and-hour litigation, confusing state-level regulations and an increase in federal audits were among the biggest legal trends of 2020. While many of these issues will remain in the year ahead, 2021 will also bring several more legal hurdles for home-based care providers.
The decision of whether to mandate COVID-19 vaccinations for home health and home care workers is toward the top of that list. Other emerging legal battles that will shape 2021 include telehealth dos and don’ts.
To keep in-home care operators in the legal loop, Home Health Care News reached out to four attorneys who specialize in the field. The group of legal experts offered their take on the biggest focus areas of 2021.
Their responses are below, edited for length and clarity.
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An enormous challenge home care and home health providers face is remaining compliant with the myriad of federal, state, and local laws and regulations that continue to change at a record pace. It is critically important that providers have a comprehensive legislative tracking process and adopt proactive compliance strategies to both identify changes and modify their policies and procedures to conform appropriately. Providers that operate in multiple jurisdictions or states are especially confronted with this challenge.
One of the most straightforward examples is ensuring compliance with the payment of varying minimum-wage rates. The federal minimum wage is currently $7.25 per hour. However, the Biden administration will likely seek a $15 federal minimum wage. Many states already require a higher minimum wage, such as Colorado’s $12.32 requirement. Some states — such as California — have local jurisdictions, each with its own unique minimum wage requirements that often depend on the number of employees within a given business.
Another major trend to watch out for is the enactment of Domestic Workers Bills of Rights (DWBRs) across the nation. These laws provide specific requirements that employers within a given jurisdiction must adhere to with regard to minimum wages, overtime wages, discrimination and harassment complaints, training requirements and much more. Last year, Philadelphia became the 10th jurisdiction to enact employment legislation to protect domestic workers — and some may recall the federal DWBR legislation sponsored by Kamala Harris in 2019.
We can anticipate a revival of that effort under the Biden administration.
— Angelo Spinola, co-chair of the home health and home care industry group at Littler Mendelson
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If I had to pick one legal issue to watch in 2021, it would be health care payment and coverage reform. While the Affordable Care Act was enacted over a decade ago, its wake continues to make waves in the health care sector. Legal challenges remain unresolved in the courts. Twelve states have not expanded Medicaid. Over 10% of Americans remain uninsured. Federal agencies continue to use their broad regulatory authority to push providers toward value-based reimbursement.
With the inauguration of Joe Biden, I anticipate seeing significant efforts to build on the ACA and, potentially, legislative attempts to expand coverage. While Democrats will control the White House and both chambers of Congress, their razor-thin margin in the Senate makes “Medicare for All” proposals unlikely.
Although the regulatory proposals have been overshadowed by recent events, the Trump administration has proposed or finalized rules that could have a significant impact on provider payment and oversight. A significant theme in 2021 will be the extent to which the Biden administration alters or replaces those rulemaking efforts
As we emerge from the pandemic — hopefully soon — federal and state governments and private payers will examine the many regulatory waivers and flexibilities granted during the public health emergency. Which ones will stay? Which will go? Only time will tell.
— Matt Wolfe, partner at Parker Poe
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2020 shined a spotlight on the importance of home health care, as in-person doctor visits were no longer accessible to seniors and facility-based providers dealt with depleted resources and fewer available beds. As access to services dwindled and remote care began to flourish, a massive inequity affecting home health care was revealed.
Remote care services are frequently not reimbursable in a home health setting — and any home health visits delivered via telehealth do not count toward LUPA thresholds during an episode of care. That policy essentially punishes these home health providers that use telehealth to supplement in-person care. In an environment swiftly moving toward value-based outcomes and technology-driven efficiencies, this disparity became evident to policymakers, who are now working toward a remedy.
For those companies who rely on fee-for-service income, the motivation to transform businesses using new technologies will continue to lag unless we figure out a way to increase financial incentives to enable such transformation. We should expect to see innovative home health companies form or participate in value-based enterprises under the newly published Anti-Kickback Statute safe harbors as a way to compensate for the current lack of reimbursement for virtual services.
— Rebecca Gwilt, partner at Nixon Gwilt Law
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The first half of 2021 will keep providers occupied with getting their employees and patients vaccinated. The pandemic has caused, in many respects, the reduction of home care hours as patients are concerned about aides bringing COVID-19 into the home.
The vaccine offers providers the opportunity to reassure their patients that the aides are not bringing the virus into the home. In turn, it’s a way to increase hours. Therefore, we anticipate that providers will launch wide-scale efforts to get their workers vaccinated. This will involve helping the caregivers understand the importance of being vaccinated and, in some cases, conditioning future and continued employment on the employees’ agreement to become vaccinated.